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:: Volume 10, Issue 4 (1-2006) ::
__Armaghane Danesh__ 2006, 10(4): 1-11 Back to browse issues page
Effect of Ephedrine on Reducing Pain Induced by Intravenous Injection of Propofol at the Time of Anesthesia Induction
MR Afhami 1, B Naghipour, P Hassanzadeh Salmasi
1- , Dr.b_naghipoure@yahoo.co.uk
Abstract:   (4495 Views)
& Objective: Propofol is an ultra short acting non barbiturate I.V. anesthetic used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. It can also be used for sedation purposes out of the operating rooms but its usage is limited because of pain feeling at the time of IV injection. The etiology of pain is unknown but the phenol may cause pain from a local irritated vein. Pain resulted from indirect action kininogens released from endothelium which may trigger painful stimuli in the nerve endings should also be considered. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ephedrine on reducing pain in order to extend its usage as a useful and safe anesthetic at the time of anesthesia induction. Material & Methods: This is a placebo controlled double blind study performed in educational and the therapeutical centers of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. One-hundred patients with ASA class I (classification of physical status by American Society of Anesthesiologists) were randomly selected. All the patients were monitored with an ECG, pulse oximeter and an automatic NIBP and a 20-gauge canula inserted in to a vein on the dorsum of the hand. Patients were divided into two groups. Group one (control group) received 2 ml normal saline and group two received 50 µg/kg ephedrine diluted with normal saline to 2 ml, 30 seconds before propofol administration (2mg / kg) by a person who was aware of the contents of the labeled syringes. During administration, the intensity of pain was assessed using VRS (Verbal Rating Scale). Vital signs were recorded one and three minutes after induction. Collected data were analyzed by Man Whitney, t-test and chi-square. Results: Mean age of the patients was 29.74±7.69 years. From the point of pain intensity, 30 of patients in control group suffered from moderate pain and 19 from mild pain. Only one of patients in case group did not experience pain. These parameters in study group were 0, 10 and 40 respectively (p<0.001). There was no corellation between sex and pain feeling. Differences in duration of pain sensation were statistically significant in two groups (9.49±2.34 versus 6.20±20.9). Changes in blood pressure and heart rate one and three minutes after induction of anesthesia, except for systolic BP one minute after induction, were also statistically significant in studied groups (p<0.001). Tachycardia in case group, 3 minutes after, was significant compared to cnotrol group (p<0.001). Conclusion: Use of ephedrine before propofol administration can decrease or prevent feeling of pain. It also can prevent blood pressure and bradycardia after its administration. Considering these findings and needs for development of outpatient surgeries, and also decreasing the exposure of anesthesia team to anesthetic gases, propofol which is a relatively safe and useful anesthetic can be used, with more satisfaction and confidence, for anesthesia induction.
Keywords: Ephedrine, Propofol, Intravenous anesthesia, Pain
Full-Text [PDF 245 kb]   (1392 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2015/06/6 | Accepted: 2015/06/6 | Published: 2015/06/6
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Afhami M, Naghipour B, Hassanzadeh Salmasi P. Effect of Ephedrine on Reducing Pain Induced by Intravenous Injection of Propofol at the Time of Anesthesia Induction. Armaghane danesh. 2006; 10 (4) :1-11
URL: http://armaghanj.yums.ac.ir/article-1-745-en.html

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Volume 10, Issue 4 (1-2006) Back to browse issues page
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