[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
Main Menu
Journal Information::
Articles archive::
For Authors::
For Reviewers::
Contact us::
Site Facilities::
Indexing & Abstracting::
Publication Ethics::
Search in website

Advanced Search
Receive site information
Enter your Email in the following box to receive the site news and information.
Indexing & Abstracting
:: Volume 28, Issue 6 (12-2023) ::
__Armaghane Danesh__ 2023, 28(6): 856-869 Back to browse issues page
Evaluation of Growth Indices as an Important Health Indicator in Children 2-4 Years Old with History of Prematurity and Low Birth Weight: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Shiraz, Referral Center in Southern Iran, During 2019-2021
H Ilkhanipoor1 , SM Razavinejad2 , M Asadi3 , R Oboodi2 , F Yarmahmoodi4 , H Barzegar 5
1- Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences,Shiraz,Iran
2- Neonatal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences,Shiraz,Iran
3- Department of Pediatric, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences,Shiraz,Iran
4- Medical Imaging Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences,Shiraz,Iran
5- Neonatal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences,Shiraz,Iran , hamide.barzegar@gmail.com
Abstract:   (743 Views)
Background & aim: In the present day, with the improvement of clinical care, the number of cases of premature and low birth weight babies who survive has increased. This group of babies usually achieve compensatory and faster growth than the average growth for their age and gender in the first two years of life. Also, small for gestational age (SGA) babies often have low birth weight (less than 2500 grams). These babies usually achieve compensatory growth at 2-3 years old. But if they cannot achieve this rapid compensatory growth, they may need therapeutic interventions including growth hormone administration. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine and investigate growth indicators as an important health assessment criterion in 2-4-year-old children with a history of prematurity and low birth weight.

Methods: The present retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2018-2019 on 96 children between 2 to 4 years of age who were born prematurely or with a low weight (less than 2500 grams). The hospitalization records of these children hospitalized at Hafez and Namazi hospitals of Shiraz were examined. Parents were invited to participate in the study through an online application. Growth indices including head circumference, height and weight were measured by a trained physician. Body mass index and Z-score were calculated for these indices and growth indices at birth were collected from their hospital records. The collected data were analyzed using t-test, chi-score and analysis of variance.

Results: 96 children were included in the study, 12.5% of children were small for their gestational age at the time of birth, and at the time of evaluation in the present study. All participants had reached the appropriate height and head circumference for their age, but 5 (41.6%) children were underweight. 45 (46.9%) children had growth disorder at the time of examination, 31 (32.3%) children were referred for laboratory evaluation and 3 (3.1%) children were treated with growth hormone. In this study, 33 (34.4%) children were underweight and 4 (4.2%) were short, 38 (39.6%) had a low body mass index (less than 2SD).

Conclusion: Premature and LBW infants need more attention for growth in follow-ups. Physicians should be aware of growth delay or arrest to do the best intervention at the time. They may need to refer to a pediatric endocrinology clinic at the proper time.

Keywords: Growth, Low birth weight, Premature
Full-Text [PDF 518 kb]   (162 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2023/09/1 | Accepted: 2023/10/30 | Published: 2023/11/22
1. Hughes MM, Black RE, Katz J. 2500-g Low Birth Weight Cutoff: History and Implications for Future Research and Policy. Matern Child Health J 2017; 21(2): 283-9.## [DOI:10.1007/s10995-016-2131-9] [PMID] []
2. Saenger P, Czernichow P, Hughes I, Reiter EO. Small for gestational age: short stature and beyond. Endocr Rev 2007; 28(2): 219-51. ## [DOI:10.1210/er.2006-0039] [PMID]
3. Morley R, Fewtrell MS, Abbott RA, Stephenson T, MacFadyen U, Lucas A. Neurodevelopment in children born small for gestational age: a randomized trial of nutrient-enriched versus standard formula and comparison with a reference breastfed group. Pediatrics 2004; 113(3 Pt 1): 515-21. ## [DOI:10.1542/peds.113.3.515] [PMID]
4. De Bernabé JV, Soriano T, Albaladejo R, Juarranz M, Calle Ma E, Martı́nez D, et al. Risk factors for low birth weight: a review. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2004; 116(1): 3-15. ## [DOI:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2004.03.007] [PMID]
5. Wilmott RW. Catching-up" on catch-up growth. The Journal of Pediatrics 2013; 162(2): 220. ## [DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.12.021]
6. Hwang IT. Long-term care, from neonatal period to adulthood, of children born small for gestational age. Clin Pediatr Endocrinol 2019; 28(4): 97-103. ## [DOI:10.1297/cpe.28.97] [PMID] []
7. Tuvemo T, Cnattingius S, Jonsson B. Prediction of male adult stature using anthropometric data at birth: a nationwide population-based study. Pediatr Res 1999; 46(5): 491-5. ## [DOI:10.1203/00006450-199911000-00001] [PMID]
8. Jain V, Singhal A. Catch up growth in low birth weight infants: striking a healthy balance. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2012; 13(2): 141-7. ## [DOI:10.1007/s11154-012-9216-6] [PMID]
9. Martin A, Connelly A, Bland RM, Reilly JJ. Health impact of catch‐up growth in low‐birth weight infants: systematic review, evidence appraisal, and meta‐analysis. Maternal & Child Nutrition 2017; 13(1): 12297 ## [DOI:10.1111/mcn.12297] [PMID] []
10. Albertsson-Wikland K, Karlberg J. Postnatal growth of children born small for gestational age. Acta Paediatr Suppl 1997; 423: 193-5. ## [DOI:10.1111/j.1651-2227.1997.tb18413.x] [PMID]
11. Al Shaikh A, Daftardar H, Alghamdi AA, Jamjoom M, Awidah S, Ahmed ME, et al. Effect of growth hormone treatment on children with idiopathic short stature (ISS), idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (IGHD), small for gestational age (SGA) and Turner syndrome (TS) in a tertiary care center. Acta Biomed 2020; 91(1): 29-40. ##
12. Clayton PE, Cianfarani S, Czernichow P, Johannsson G, Rapaport R, Rogol A. Management of the child born small for gestational age through to adulthood: a consensus statement of the International Societies of Pediatric Endocrinology and the Growth Hormone Research Society. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92(3): 804-10. ## [DOI:10.1210/jc.2006-2017] [PMID]
13. Lee PA, Chernausek SD, Hokken-Koelega AC, Czernichow P. International small for gestational age advisory board consensus development conference statement: management of short children born small for gestational age, april 24-october 1, 2001. Pediatrics 2003; 111(6 Pt 1): 1253-61. ## [DOI:10.1542/peds.111.6.1253] [PMID]
14. Lee KH, Lee BC, Ko CW, Jin DK, Yang SW, Yoo HW, et al. A single-arm, phase iii study to assess efficacy and safety after 6-month-treatment of eutropin(tm) inj. (recombinant human growth hormone) in prepubertal children with short stature due to small for gestational age. J Korean Soc Pediatr Endocrinol 2011; 16(3): 157-64. ## [DOI:10.6065/jkspe.2011.16.3.157]
15. Mukhopadhyay K, Mahajan R, Louis D, Narang A. Longitudinal growth of very low birth weight neonates during first year of life and risk factors for malnutrition in a developing country. Acta Paediatr 2013; 102(3): 278-81. ## [DOI:10.1111/apa.12113] [PMID]
16. Sharma PK, Sankar MJ, Sapra S, Saxena R, Karthikeyan CV, Deorari A, et al. Growth and neurosensory outcomes of preterm very low birth weight infants at 18 months of corrected age. Indian J Pediatr 2011; 78(12): 1485-90. ## [DOI:10.1007/s12098-011-0442-9] [PMID]
17. Park JS, Han J, Shin JE, Lee SM, Eun HS, Park MS, et al. Postdischarge growth assessment in very low birth weight infants. Korean J Pediatr 2017; 60(3): 64-9. ## [DOI:10.3345/kjp.2017.60.3.64] [PMID] []
18. Kosinska M, Stoinska B, Gadzinowski J. Catch-up growth among low birth weight infants: Estimation of the time of occurrence of compensatory events. Anthropological Review 2004; 67: 87-95. ##
19. Gat-Yablonski G, Phillip M. Nutritionally-Induced Catch-Up Growth. Nutrients 2015; 7(1): 517-51. [DOI:10.3390/nu7010517] [PMID] []
20. Monset-Couchard M, de Bethmann O. Catch-up growth in 166 small-for- gestational age premature infants weighing less than 1,000 g at birth. Biol Neonate 2000; 78(3): 161-7. ## [DOI:10.1159/000014265] [PMID]
21. Durá-Travé T, San Martín-García I, Gallinas-Victoriano F, Chueca-Guindulain MJ, Berrade-Zubiri S. Catch-up growth and associated factors in very low birth weight infants. Anales de Pediatría(English Edition) 2020; 93(5): 282-8. ## [DOI:10.1016/j.anpede.2019.06.007] [PMID]
22. Arai S, Sato Y, Muramatsu H, Yamamoto H, Aoki F, Okai Y, et al. Risk factors for absence of catch‐up growth in small for gestational age very low‐birthweight infants. Pediatrics International 2019; 61(9): 889-94. ## [DOI:10.1111/ped.13939] [PMID]
23. de Wit CC, Sas TC, Wit JM, Cutfield WS. Patterns of catch-up growth. J Pediatr 2013; 162(2): 415-20. ## [DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.10.014] [PMID]
24. Tshotetsi L, Dzikiti L, Hajison P, Feresu S. Maternal factors contributing to low birth weight deliveries in Tshwane District, South Africa. PloS one 2019; 14(3): e0213058. ## [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0213058] [PMID] []
25. Spinillo A, Montanari L, Sanpaolo P, Bergante C, Chiara A, Fazzi E. Fetal growth and infant neurodevelopmental outcome after preterm premature rupture of membranes. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103(6): 1286-93. ## [DOI:10.1097/01.AOG.0000127706.78192.95] [PMID]
26. Spinillo A, Capuzzo E, Stronati M, Ometto A, Orcesi S, Fazzi E. Effect of preterm premature rupture of membranes on neurodevelopmental outcome: follow up at two years of age. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1995; 102(11): 882-7. ## [DOI:10.1111/j.1471-0528.1995.tb10875.x] [PMID]
27. Patkai J, Schmitz T, Anselem O, Mokbat S, Jarreau PH, Goffinet F, et al. Neonatal and two-year outcomes after rupture of membranes before 25 weeks of gestation. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2013; 166(2): 145-50. ## [DOI:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2012.10.014] [PMID]
28. Brief F, Guimber D, Baudelet JB, Houeijeh A, Piéchaud JF, Richard A, et al. Prevalence and associated factors of long-term growth failure in infants with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac surgery before the age of one. Pediatr Cardiol 2022; 43(8): 1681-7. ## [DOI:10.1007/s00246-022-02933-w] [PMID]
29. Shi H, Hu C, Zhang L, Tong M, Li L, Cui Y. Early growth trajectory of infants with simple congenital heart disease and complex congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac repair: a prospective cohort study in china. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2021; 45(6): 1181-91. ## [DOI:10.1002/jpen.2017] [PMID]
30. Piekkala P, Kero P, Sillanpää M, Erkkola R. Growth and development of infants surviving respiratory distress syndrome: a 2-year follow-up. Pediatrics 1987; 79(4): 529-37. ## [DOI:10.1542/peds.79.4.529] [PMID]
31. Zucchini S, Cacciari E, Balsamo A, Cicognani A, Tassinari D, Barbieri E, et al. Final height of short subjects of low birth weight with and without growth hormone treatment. Arch Dis Child 2001; 84(4): 340-3. ## [DOI:10.1136/adc.84.4.340] [PMID] []
32. Halli SS, Biradar RA, Prasad JB. Low birth weight, the differentiating risk factor for stunting among preschool children in India. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2022; 19(7): 3751. ## [DOI:10.3390/ijerph19073751] [PMID] []
33. Arai S, Sato Y, Muramatsu H, Yamamoto H, Aoki F, Okai Y, et al. Risk factors for absence of catch-up growth in small for gestational age very low-birthweight infants. Pediatr Int 2019; 61(9): 889-94. ## [DOI:10.1111/ped.13939] [PMID]
34. Lee PA, Kendig JW, Kerrigan JR. Persistent short stature, other potential outcomes, and the effect of growth hormone treatment in children who are born small for gestational age. Pediatrics 2003; 112(1 Pt 1): 150-62. ## [DOI:10.1542/peds.112.1.150] [PMID]
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ilkhanipoor H, Razavinejad S, Asadi M, Oboodi R, Yarmahmoodi F, Barzegar H. Evaluation of Growth Indices as an Important Health Indicator in Children 2-4 Years Old with History of Prematurity and Low Birth Weight: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Shiraz, Referral Center in Southern Iran, During 2019-2021. armaghanj 2023; 28 (6) :856-869
URL: http://armaghanj.yums.ac.ir/article-1-3513-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 28, Issue 6 (12-2023) Back to browse issues page
ارمغان دانش Armaghane Danesh
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 39 queries by YEKTAWEB 4657